1955 – 1974

WORK IN PROGRESS
1955 Steve Jobs is born February 24, 1955.
Tom Watson, IBM’s president is featured on the front of Time Magazine March 28, 1955.
Albert Einstein dies on April 18, 1955.
John McCarthy coins the term Artificial Intelligence – AI – in 1955 at Dartmouth University.
Dartmouth Colleges John McCarthy coins the term ‘artificial intelligence.’
Tim Bernes-Lee is born June 8, 1955.
William – Bill – H. Gates is born October 28, 1955.
IBM introduces the first IBM 702.
Bell Labs introduces its first transistor computer. Transistors are faster, smaller and create less heat than traditional vacuum tubs, making these computers more reliable and efficient.
The ENIAC is turned off for the last time. Its estimated to have done more arithmetic than the entire human race had done prior to 1945.
1956 The TX-O – Transistorized Experimental computer – and first transistorized computer is demonstrated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
On September 13, 1956 the IBM 305 RAMAC is the first computer to be shipped with a hard disk drive that contained 50 24-inch platters and was capable of storing 5 million characters and weighed a ton.
1957 IBM announces it will no longer be using vacuum tubes and releases its first computer that had 2000 transistors.
Fairchild Semiconductor is founded by Andy Grove, Eugene Kleiner, Gordon Moore, Jerry Sanders, Robert Noyce.
Digital Equipment Corporation is founded by Kenneth Olsen. The company will later become a major network computer manufacturer.
Russia launches the first artificial satellite, named Sputnik on October 4, 1957.
In response to Sputnik the United States creates the new agency ARPA.
Casio is established.
1958 The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics is renamed to National Aeronautics and Space Administration – NASA -.
NEC builds its first computer the NEAC 1101.
William Higinbotham created the first video game called: Tennis for Two.
The programming language FORTRAN II is created. Later FORTRAN III is created but never released to the public.
President Eisenhowers Christmas address is the first voice transmission from a satellite.
The first integrated circuit is first developed by Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor and Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments. The first microchip was demonstrated on September 12, 1958.
1959 Hitachi is founded.
The Harvard-MARK I is turned off for the last time.
Robert Noyce creates an integrated circuit with component connections made of aluminum lines on silicon.
The Luna 2 becomes the first human made object to land on the moon on September 14, 1959.
Leonard Kleinrock starts to developing packetization.
Motorola produces the two-way, fully transistorized mobile radio.
Panasonic is founded.
1960 IBMs 1400 series machines, aimed at the business market begin to be distributed.
The Common Business-Oriented Language – COBOL – programming language is invented.
Psychologist Frank Rosenblatt creates the Mark I Perception, which has an ‘eye’ that can learn to identify its ABCs.
NASA launches TIROS, the first weather satellite into space.
AT&T introduces the dataphone and the first known MODEM.
RS-232 is introduced by EIA.
IFIP is founded.
Digital introduces the PDP-1 the first minicomputer.
1961 Hewlett-Packard stock is accepted by the New York Stock Exchange for national and international trading.
Leonard Kleinrock publishes his first paper entitled ‘Information Flow in Large Communication Nets’ is published May 31, 1961.
General Motors puts the first industrial robot the 4,000 pound Unimate to work in a New Jersey factory.
Accredited Standards Committee is founded, this committee later becomes the INCITS.
P.Z. Ingerman develops a thunk.
ECMA is established.
The programming language FORTRAN IV is created.
1962 Steve Russell creates ‘SpaceWar!’ and releases it in February 1962. This game is considered the first game intended for computers.
Leonard Kleinrock releases his paper talking about packetization.
Paul Baran suggests transmission of data using fixed size message blocks.
J.C.R. Licklider becomes the first Director of IPTO and gives his vision of a galactic network.
Philips invents the compact audio cassette tape.
The NASA rocket, the Mariner II, is equipped with a Motorola transmitter on it’s trip to Venus.
Sharp is founded.
1963 IEEE is founded.
The American Standard Code for Information Interchange – ASCII – is developed to standardize data exchange among computers.
1964 Dartmouth Universitys John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz develop Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Language – BASIC – and run it for the first time May 1, 1964.
Baran publishes reports ‘On Distributed Communications.’
AT&T starts the practice of monitoring telephone calls in the hopes of identifying phreakers.
The TRANSIT system becomes operational on U.S. Polaris submarines. This system later becomes known as GPS.
On April 7, 1964 IBM introduces its System/360, the first of its computers to use interchangeable software and peripheral equipment.
Leonard Kleinrock publishes his first book on packet nets entitled Communication Nets: Stochastic Message Flow and Design.
The first computerized encyclopedia is invented at the Systems Development Corporation.
1965 Ted Nelson coins the term ‘hypertext,’ which refers to text that is not necessarily linear.
Hypermedia is coined by Ted Nelson.
Donald Davies coins the word ‘Packet.’
Engineers at TRW Corporation develop a Generalized Information Retrieval Language and System which later develops to the Pick Database Management System used today on Unix and Windows systems.
Millions watch for the first time a space probe crashing into the moon on March 24, 1965.
Texas Instruments develops the transistor-transistor logic – TTL -.
Lawrence G. Roberts with MIT performs the first long distant dial-up connection between a TX-2 computer n Massachusetts and a Q-32 in California.
Gordon Moore makes an observation that later becomes widely known as Moore’s Law.
ARPA sponsors study on ‘cooperative network of time-sharing computers’
1966 Lawrence G. Roberts, MIT: ‘Towards a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers’ – October -; ARPANET plan
MITs Joseph Weizenbaum writes a program called Eliza, that makes the computer act as a psychotherapist.
Lawrence G. Roberts and Tom Marill publish a paper about their earlier success at connecting over dial-up.
Stephen Gray establishes the first personal computer club, the Amateur Computer Society.
Robert Taylor joins ARPA and brings Larry Roberts there to develop ARPANET.
The programming language BCPL is created.
1967 ARPANET design discussions held by Larry Roberts at ARPA IPTO PI meeting in Ann Arbor, Michigan – April –
IBM creates the first floppy disk.
Donald Davies creates 1-node NPL packet net.
Wes Clark suggests use of a minicomputer for network packet switch.
The LOGO programming language is developed and is later known as ‘turtle graphics,’ a simplified interface useful for teaching children computers.
Donald Davies creates 1-node NPL packet net.
Ralph Baer creates ‘Chase’, the first video game that was capable of being played on a television.
HES is developed at the Brown University.
Nokia is formed.
GPS becomes available for commercial use.
ISACA is established.
1968 PS-network presented to the Advanced Research Projects Agency – ARPA –
Intel Corporation is founded by Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore.
The first Network Working Group – NWG – meeting is held.
Bob Propst invents the office cubicle.
Larry Roberts publishes ARPANET program plan on June 3, 1968.
On June 4, 1968 Dr. Robert Dennard at the IBM T.J. Watson Research center is granted U.S. patent 3,387,286 describing a one-transistor DRAM cell.
First RFP for a network goes out.
UCLA is selected to be the first node on the Internet as we know it today and serve as the Network Msmnt Center.
The movie ‘2001: A Space Odyssey’ is released.
SHRDLU is created.
Seiko markets a miniature printer for use with calculators.
Sony invents Trinitron.
Doug Englebart publicly demonstrates Hypertext on the NLS on December 9, 1968.
1969 Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. – BBN – awarded Packet Switch contract to build Interface Message Processors – IMPs – in January; US Senator Edward Kennedy sends a congratulatory telegram to BBN for its million-dollar ARPA contract to build the ‘Interfaith’ Message Processor, and thanking them for their ecumenical efforts
Control Data Corporation led by Seymour Cray, release the CDC 7600, considered by most to be the first supercomputer.
AT&T Bell Laboratories develop Unix.
Steve Crocker releases RFC #1 on April 7, 1979 introducing the Host-to-Host and talking about the IMP software.
Linus Torvalds is born.
Gary Starkweather, while working with Xerox invents the laser printer.
UCLA puts out a press release introducing the public to the Internet on July 3, 1969.
Ralph Baer files for a US Patent on August 21, 1969 that describes playing games on a television and would later be a part of the Magnavox Odyssey.
On August 29, 1969 the first network switch and the first piece of network equipment – called ‘IMP’, which is short for Interface Message Processor – is sent to UCLA.
On September 2, 1969 the first data moves from UCLA host to the IMP switch.
CompuServe, the first commercial online service, is established.
AMD is founded on May 1, 1969.
1970 Western Digital is founded.
Steve Crocker and UCLA team releases NCP.
Intel announces the 1103, a new DRAM memory chip containing more than 1,000 bits of information. This chip is classified as random-access memory – RAM -.
The Xerox Palo Alto Research Center – PARC – is established to perform basic computing and electronic research.
The forth programming language is created by Charles H. Moore.
The first ATM is demonstrated and used in Georgia.
U.S. Department of Defense develops ada a computer programming language capable of designing missile guidance systems.
Intel introduces the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004 on November 15, 1971.
The Sealed Lead Acid battery begins being used for commercial use.
Jack Kilby is awarded the National Medal of Science.
Centronics introduces the first dot matrix printer.
Douglas Englebart gets a patent for the first computer mouse on November 17, 1970.
IBM introduces the System/370, which included the use of Virtual Memory and utilized memory chips instead of magnetic core technology.
1971 The first 8′ floppy diskette drive was introduced
Ray Tomlinson sends the first e-mail, the first messaging system to send messages across a network to other users.
The first laser printer is developed at Xerox PARC.
FTP is first purposed.
IBM introduces its first speech recognition program capable of recognizing about 5,000 words.
Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney create the first arcade game called ‘Computer Space.’
SMC is founded.
Steve Wozniak and Bill Fernandez develop a computer called the Cream Soda Computer.
Schadt and Helfrich develop twisted nematic.
Niklaus Wirth invents the Pascal programming language.
Intel develops the the first processor, the 4004
First edition of Unix released November 03, 1971. The first edition of the ‘Unix PROGRAMMER’S MANUAL [by] K. Thompson [and] D. M. Ritchie.’ It includes over 60 commands like: b – compile B program -; boot – reboot system -; cat – concatenate files -; chdir – change working directory -; chmod – change access mode -; chown – change owner -; cp – copy file -; ls – list directory contents -; mv – move or rename file -; roff – run off text -; wc – get word count -; who – who is one the system -. The main thing missing was pipes.
1972 The first video game console called the Odyssey is released by Magnavox selling for $100.00 USD.
ARPA is renamed to DARPA.
The programming language FORTRAN 66 is created.
Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs invents the C programming language.
Edsger Dijkstra is awarded the ACM Turning Award.
The compact disc is invented in the United States.
Cray Research Inc. is founded.
Atari releases Pong, the first commercial video game on November 29, 1972.
First public demo of ARPANET.
Whetstone is first released in November 1972.
Norm Abramson’ Alohanet connected to ARPANET: packet radio nets.
1973 Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn design TCP during 1973 and later publish it with the help of Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine in December of 1974 in RFC 675.
ARPA deploys SATNET the first international connection.
Robert Metcalfe creates the Ethernet at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center – PARC – on May 22, 1973.
The first VoIP call is made.
IBM introduces its 3660 Supermarket System, which uses a laser to read grocery prices.
Interactive laser discs make their debut.
The ICCP is founded.
Dr. Martin Cooper makes the first cell phone call at Motorola.
1974 Intel’s improved microprocessor chip, the 8080 becomes a standard in the computer industry.
John Draper aka Captain Crunch discovers a breakfast cereal children’s whistle creates a 2600 hertz tone. Using this whistle and a blue box he’s able to successfully get into AT&T’s phone network and make free calls anywhere in the world.
The first Toshiba floppy disk drive is introduced.
The IBM MVS operating system is introduced.
A commercial version of ARPANET known as Telenet is introduced and considered by many to be the first Internet Service Provider – ISP -.
IBM develops SEQUEL, which today is known as SQL today.
IBM introduces SNA.
Charles Simonyi coins the term WYSIWYG.

I had a life once. Now I have a computer.